Anatomy of the Horse: with Aaron Horowitz and Rolf Berg

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Anatomy of the Horse: with Aaron Horowitz and Rolf Berg

Anatomy of the Horse: with Aaron Horowitz and Rolf Berg

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Denoix, J. and Pailloux, J., 2011a. Mobilization and Stretching. In: J. Denoix and J. Pailloux, ed., Physical Therapy and Massage of the Horse, 2nd ed. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, pp.101-130. Caudal articular processes face ventrally and are positioned at the base of the spinous process. The cranial articular processes are oval facets on the arch of the vertebra and face dorsally. Each thoracic vertebrae has a pair of costal facets on the dorsal body (except the last) forming the costal fovea. [1]

Girth or heartgirth: the area right behind the elbow of the horse, where the girth of the saddle would go; this area should be where the barrel is at its greatest diameter in a properly-conditioned horse that is not pregnant or obese

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Susan J. Holcombe (1998). "Neuromuscular Regulation of the Larynx and Nasopharynx in the Horse" (PDF). Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the AAEP. 44: 26. Figure 3-2 Spinal cord and vertebrae diagram. Spinal cord running within the vertebral foramen and spinal nerves exiting the intervertebral foramen. Parts forming a spinal nerve: dorsal and ventral roots, dorsal root ganglion. Meningeal layers: dura mater = tough mother; arachnoid mater = spider-like mother; subarachnoid space = cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); pia mater = tender mother. (from Gardner E: Fundamental of Neurology & Cunningham’s Textbook of Veterinary Physiology) Anticlinal vertebrae: This is the point in the caudal thoracic vertebral column at which the anatomic features of the vertebra start to change. [7] This usually occurs at the 13th vertebra in horses.

Gellman, K. and Bertram, A., 2002. The equine nuchal ligament 2: passive dynamic energy exchange in locomotion. Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology, 15(01), pp.07-14. Clayton HM, Townsend HG. Kinematics of the cervical spine of the adult horse. Equine Vet J. 1989;21(3):189-92. The internal carotid a. is on the caudal surface of the pouch briefly and then the medial surface. The internal carotid a. may hemorrhage into the pouch if eroded by infection– see Clinical Notes below.Parts of the Horse" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2011 . Retrieved 25 August 2011. Figure 14B-11 Horse skull, ventral, slightly oblique view. The cheek teeth have been removed on the right side of the skull. The alveoli on the right are labeled by their Triadan numbers. The teeth on the left would then be Triadan numbers 207-211 respectively. 1, caudal maxillary sinus; 2, rostral maxillary sinus; 3, septum between 1 & 2; 4, hard palate; 4’, palatine foramen; 5, vomer; 6, orbit; *, foramen lacerum. Mina C G Davies Morel (5 June 2015). Equine Reproductive Physiology, Breeding and Stud Management, 4th Edition. CABI. ISBN 978-1-78064-442-4. The term anatomy means the study of the structure of a particular species and all its individual components. A horse's anatomy consists of several different body systems that work in combination to maintain all normal body functions. Between the incisors, or canines, and the cheek teeth ( premolars (P) and molars (M)) in ungulates is a wide interdental space called the diastema. (Figs. 18-19, 25-18)

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